July Books

Non-Fiction 11 (YTD 41)
Hope-In-The-Mist, by Michael Swanwick
The Bloody Sunday Report, Vol II
The Bloody Sunday Report, Vol III
The Bloody Sunday Report, Vol IV
A Fortunate Life: The Autobiography of Paddy Ashdown
The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Vols I & II, by Edward Gibbon
The Bloody Sunday Report, Vol V
The Stuff of Thought, by Steven Pinker
The Bloody Sunday Report, Vol VI
The Bloody Sunday Report, Vol VII
The Bloody Sunday Report, Vol VIII

Fiction (non-genre) 3 (YTD 31)
Dead Souls, by Ian Rankin
Oliver Twist, by Charles Dickens
The Sun Also Rises, by Ernest Hemingway

SF (non-Who) 1 (YTD 46)
Faust, by Goethe

Doctor Who etc 5 (YTD 37)
In The Shadows, by Joseph Lidster
Martha In The Mirror, by Justin Richards
Everyone Says Hello, by Dan Abnett
Doctor Who Annual 1973
The Highest Science by Gareth Roberts

Comics 1 (YTD 9)
Black Hole, by Charles Burns

Rather appallingly 0/21 (YTD 34/165) by women
Equally appallingly 0/21 (YTD 11/165) by PoC (as far as I know)
6/21 owned for more than a year (Dead Souls, Highest Science, Martha In The Mirror, The Stuff of Thought, The Sun Also Rises, Oliver Twist)
Unusually, and for a second month running, no rereads. (YTD rereads 11/165)
~9,200 pages (YTD 52,100)

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July Books 21) The Bloody Sunday Report, Vol VIII

We’re in the final stages now, and as with the previous volume, this is a bit of a grab-bag of disparate topics.

More than half of this volume is taken up with an overall assessment of the activities of paramilitary organisations. Indeed, almost half of it is taken up with an in-depth analysis of the staffing, capabilities and activities of the Provos, the Stickies, and the Fianna in Derry at the time of Bloody Sunday. The longest chapter in the book (Chapter 147, 109 pages out of 586) deals with a paramilitary organisation which was not in fact active as such during the army shootings, the Provisional IRA. This seems to reflect partly the availability of information, partly the level of interest generally because of Martin McGuinness’s role (he was essentially second-in-command of the Provos at the time) and partly also because the lawyers representing the soldiers had concocted an argument that there was a massive cover-up of Provisional IRA shooting at the Paras, and followed by a deep conspiracy of silence to conceal the deaths of the real gunmen shot by the soldiers on the day. The Provos actually come off rather well; they assured the organisers of the civil rights march that they would not be active, and stuck to that, other than firing a few symbolic shots which missed an army outpost some time after the main action had concluded. Much was made of Saville’s finding that Martin McGuinness had had a sub-machine gun on his person on the day, and might have fired a shot, but a close reading of the relevant passage indicates to me that Saville doubted very much that it was true and certainly did not think it made any difference to his main findings.

The Official IRA come off rather worse. They too had assured the organisers of the march that they would stay away on the day, but clearly were in fact the source of both the drainpipe shot from early on during the crucial minutes and Bishop Daly’s gunman from later on. I must look out for the recent book about them (which concentrates of course on the subsequent period) but they come across here as incompetent and dangerous, in that order. Saville concludes,

[148.156} we regard with some scepticism the evidence of former members of the Official IRA that they were well organised and disciplined and kept tight control of their weapons. Although we cannot be certain, we are of the view that it is likely that much if not all of the paramilitary activity in the five sectors, to which we have referred in our consideration of the events of those sectors, was that of members of the Official IRA, though we cannot exclude the possibility that there was some Provisional IRA activity as well.

The evidence on the Fianna, the youth wing of the IRA, is heavily confused by 29 pages dealing with one witness whose dramatic evidence was contradicted by almost everyone else in a position to know what was going on. This actually gave me my one and only laugh-out-loud moment of the entire grim report:

149.150: Patrick Ward’s accounts to the Inquiry involve him in being: (i) in charge of an attempt to nail-bomb buildings in Guildhall Square; (ii) involved in a narrow escape when a bullet was fired through the roof of his car; (iii) the saviour of Martin Doherty (PIRA 9), to whom he gave covering fire; and (iv) responsible for shooting at and probably hitting an Army helicopter. He was 16 at the time. To our minds such activity on the part of a young teenager is also inherently implausible.

However, I must say that the section on the Fianna did turn me round on my scepticism about Gerald Donaghey’s possession of nail-bombs; I reckon he was assisting the Stickies with their hasty removal of stocks from Glenfada Park North to Abbey Park, and jammed a few nail-bombs into his pockets before running for it (and being shot dead by a bullet aimed at someone else). The evidence on where the nail-bombs might have come from is pretty confused, but it would seem to me slightly more likely to have been the Stickies than the Provos who ran a tighter audit on who had access to explosives. (Though there remains the possibility that the Provos lied to Saville on this point.)

108 pages then deal with evidence for abuse of those arrested when they were taken to the detention centre at Fort George by the Paras. No particular surprise for anyone who has been following the story so far, but Lance Corporal F (who had killed at least three and possibly five people already that afternoon) is identified as particularly aggressive and abusive towards the prisoners, none of whom were subsequently charged with anything relating to the events of the afternoon. Quite apart from the specific allegations of abuse, Saville points out that due procedure was simply alien to the Paras:

[162.6] the identification process conducted by those members of 1 PARA who went to Fort George was in significant respects entirely arbitrary, soldiers having no proper basis for the descriptions or reasons they gave. There appears to have been a large-scale failure to act in good faith, and their actions illustrate that many soldiers were prepared to lie.

Of course, we knew that from what had come before.

There are then four short chapters dealing with minor issues relatiing to the army, three where Saville finds that the army is mor or less in the clear (the composition of Major Loden’s list of engagements, the accounting for the rounds of ammunition which were actually fired, and the question of whether or not soldiers fired from the City Walls of Derry) and one rather embarrassing incident where a soldier shot himself in the foot. Saville notes of this last,

168.4: The injury to Gunner INQ 1255 was the only gunshot wound sustained by any soldier in Londonderry during Bloody Sunday.

That trenchantly brief paragraph closes the narrative of events on the day.

Volume VIII ends with assessments of the four key senior officers of the British army involved with Bloody Sunday. General Ford at the top is mildly criticised for sending the Paras to Derry in the first place, though he could not have known that they would start shooting innocent civilians; Brigadier McLellan is cleared; Colonel Wilford is most at fault; and Major Loden, as the commander of Support Company, is cleared. The condemnation of Colonel Wilford, is, however, nuanced; it is not his fault that the soldiers, haviong followed the orders he wrongly gave, then started shooting civilians:

Assessment of the responsibility of Lieutenant Colonel Wilford

171.37: What happened with the arrest operation was not what Colonel Wilford had initially suggested and Brigadier MacLellan had ordered. Instead of an operation in which soldiers would stay in or close to William Street, Colonel Wilford sent them into the Bogside, where they chased people down Rossville Street, into the car park of the Rossville Flats, into Glenfada Park North and as far as Abbey Park.

171.38: In our view Colonel Wilford decided to send Support Company into the Bogside because at the time he gave the order he had concluded (without informing Brigadier MacLellan) that there was now no prospect of making any or any significant arrests in the area he had originally suggested, as the rioting was dying down and people were moving away. In addition it seems to us that he wanted to demonstrate that the way to deal with rioters in Londonderry was not to shelter behind barricades like “Aunt Sallies” while being stoned, as he perceived was what the local troops had been doing, but instead togo aggressively after them, as he and his soldiers had been doing in Belfast.

171.39: What Colonel Wilford failed to appreciate, or regarded as of little consequence, was that his soldiers, who had not been in a position to observe the rioting that had been going on at the Army barriers, would almost certainly be unable to identify anyone as a rioter, save where, when they arrived, they were met by people who were rioting at that time.

171.40: Colonel Wilford failed to inform Brigade that in his view the situation had changed and that the only prospect of making any arrests was to send his soldiers along Rossville Street into the Bogside. He then failed to obey the order that Brigadier MacLellan gave, which prohibited any such movement. He thus created a situation in which soldiers chased people down Rossville Street and beyond, in circumstances where it was not possible to distinguish between those who had merely been marching and those who had been rioting. In other words he set in train the very thing his Brigadier had enjoined him from doing. He should not have ordered his soldiers to go in vehicles along Rossville Street and into the Bogside.

171.41: In our view Colonel Wilford can also be criticised on the grounds that he should not have sent his soldiers into an area which he regarded as dangerous and which he had told his soldiers was dangerous, in other words an area which his soldiers did not know and where they might come under lethal attack from paramilitaries, who dominated part of the city. He knew that his soldiers would accordingly be very much on their guard, ready to respond instantly with gunfire at identified targets, as they were trained to respond, if they did come under such attack. He knew that his soldiers would not withdraw if they came under lethal attack but were trained not just to take cover, but instead to move forward and, as he himself said, seek out the “enemy”.

171.42 In these circumstances, on his own estimation of the danger of lethal attacks by paramilitaries, Colonel Wilford must have appreciated that there was a significant risk that sending his soldiers into the Bogside on an arrest operation could lead to an armed engagement with republican paramilitaries. He should have appreciated that if this did happen, then there was also, in view of the numbers of people around, a significant risk that people other than soldiers’ justifiable targets would be killed or injured, albeit by accident, from Army gunfire. To our minds this was another reason why Colonel Wilford should not have launched an incursion into the Bogside.

171.43 The fact that what in the event happened on Bloody Sunday when the soldiers entered the Bogside was not a justifiable response to a lethal attack by republican paramilitaries, but instead soldiers opening fire unjustifiably, cannot provide an answer to this criticism, which is based not on what happened, but what at the time Colonel Wilford thought might happen.
171.47: In summary, therefore, in our view Colonel Wilford should not have sent soldiers of Support Company into the Bogside for the following reasons:

  1. because in doing so he disobeyed the orders given by Brigadier MacLellan;
  2. because his soldiers, whose job was to arrest rioters, would have no or virtually no means of identifying those who had been rioting from those who had been taking part in the civil rights march; and
  3. because he should not have sent his soldiers into an unknown area which he and they regarded as a dangerous area, where the soldiers might well come under attack from paramilitaries, in circumstances where the soldiers’ response would run a significant risk that people other than paramilitaries engaging the soldiers would be killed or injured by Army gunfire.

171.48: Colonel Wilford did not foresee that his soldiers would act as in the event they did; and we consider that in this regard he cannot be fairly criticised.

It’s a minor lacuna, given the catalogue of evidence in the report as a whole, but it would have been good to have had a summary at the end of this section listing also the responsibilities of individual soldiers as described in previous volumes. Colonel Wilford now lives about an hour’s drive from me in Belgium, but I do not think I will drop round and ask for a cup of tea.

One more to go.

Volume I | Volume II | Volume III | Volume IV | Volume V | Volume VI | Volume VII | Volume VIII | Volume IX | Volume X and conclusions

Whoniversaries 31 July

i) births and deaths

31 July 2004: death of Robert James, who played Lesterson in The Power of the Daleks (1966) and the High Priest in The Masque of Mandragora (1976)

ii) broadcast anniversaries


iii) date almost specified in canon

31 July 1977: the latter part of episode 3 and all of episode 4 ofImage of the Fendahl (1977) are set on a day specified as ‘Lammas Eve’ (the day before 1 August, ie 31 July) by Mrs Tyler. There is no reason to suppose that the year is other than 1977.

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Delicious LiveJournal Links for 7-31-2010

  • SPIEGEL: So the Human Genome Project has had very little medical benefits so far?
    Venter: Close to zero to put it precisely.

    SPIEGEL: You stored a code in the genome of this cell. Has anyone decoded it?
    Venter: Yes, it is the first genome in the world to include an e-mail address. So far, 50 scientists have cracked the code and answered us.

    SPIEGEL: It took eight years from the time the first bacterial genome was decoded until the human genome was completed. How much time will elapse between the creation of the first synthetic bacteria and the creation of the first synthetic human?
    Venter: There is currently no reason for us to synthesize human cells. I am, for example, a fan of the work that was done a short time ago that led to the decoding of the Neanderthal genome. But we don't need any more Neanderthals on the planet, right? We already have enough of them.

    (tags: biology)
  • notes on website design
    (tags: web humour)
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In local dialect, people often wish each other Salukes on parting. (Stress on the second vowel, which is pronounced like German ü.) This curious word is a combination of the French salut, which is a slang greeting, with the plural of the Flemish diminutive -ke. I hear it often from our neighbours on the bus to Leuven in the morning; I wonder how wide-spread it is in Flanders?

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Whoniversary 30 July

date almost specified in canon

30 July 1977: Most of episode 1, all of episode 2 and the first part of episode 3 of Image of the Fendahl (1977) appear to be set on this date, for reasons which will be explained tomorrow.

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Whoniversaries 29 July

date almost specified in canon

29 July 1977: first scenes of Image of the Fendahl (1977) as the hiker meets his doom and the scientists play with their pet skull. (Will give reasons for this dating on Saturday.)

date of real event, almost but not quite specified in canon

29 July 1890: death of Vincent van Gogh

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July Books 20) The Highest Science, by Gareth Roberts

This was Gareth Roberts’ first Doctor Who book (in the Virgin New Adventures series), laying the groundwork for a subsequent career that has most recently produced The Lodger (though we have a couple more Sarah Jane Smith stories by him coming out towards the end of the year). A small plot element – London commuters whisked through a wormhole in space to encounter an alien menace – was re-used in Planet of the Dead, by Gareth Roberts and RTD. Fannish opinion on this one seems a bit polarised; I thought it was OK but not brilliant, with the best bit being the introduction of the alien Chelonians, a race of militant cybernetic tortoises who crop up in other, later Who novels and who were recently name-checked on screen in The Pandorica Opens. I was less impressed by galactic war criminal Sheldukher who I felt varied between dull and nasty. Poor Benny Summerfield has a hard time of it, with her brain being partially rotted by a spiked soft drink. Various other elements jumbled together, not completely successfully, but a fairly satisfactory Big Reveal at the end. The prelude to the book, published in DWM in 1993, is online here.

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Whoniversaries 28 July

Births and Deaths

28 July 1946: birth of Kenny McBain, who directed The Horns of Nimon (1979-80).

Yeah, slim pickings, I know. We will finish the month with a more interesting trio of dates.

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July Books 19) Doctor Who Annual 1973

I very much enjoyed the 1971 Annual, but there was a gap of two years before the next in the series was published and unfortunately the improvement in quality was not maintained. Most of the stories appear to be by an author with little knowledge of the show – the Doctor is repeatedly referred to as “the scientist” (except in the one story featuring the Master, where the fact that they are both Time Lords in exile gets slipped in) and Jo at one stage is described as having dark hair. The plots of the stories rather weakly reflect those of the first half of the Pertwee era, though have a tendency to end rather abruptly and sometimes limply. One is set in Australia, presumably to compensate Aussie viewers for their loyalty (hang on another few years, folks, and you will be further rewarded, if that is the word, with Tegan). The artist who produced the copious illustrations did a very good Pertwee, if rather obviously copied from various pulicity stills, but the depictions of Jo, Yates, the Brigadier and the Master are pretty unrecognisable (though at least Jo is blonde in the pictures if not in the text). The total page length has dropped down to 80 from 96, so all in all I think I would have felt a bit ripped off even at the time.

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July Books 18) The Bloody Sunday Report, Vol. VII

This is the last volume detailing the main series of events on Bloody Sunday, and the longest so far (just slightly ahead of Vol. V by 656 pages to 654). It is divided into three rather different sections.

The first section – 272 of the volume’s 656 numbered pages – deals with the final fatalities of the day. Four people were injured, two fatally, by army gunfire into the area immediately south of the action so far. First of all Patrick Campbell, Daniel McGowan and Patrick Doherty were shot, Doherty lying fatally injured but conscious and yelling. Then, as Saville reports the testimony of an eyewitness:

118.273 In her typed but undated NICRA statement, Geraldine McBride (née Richmond) recorded that she helped to carry Hugh Gilmour, who had been shot [back in Volume V], to the telephone box. She continued:

“The man McGuigan was there at this time. Another man was lying at Fahan Street steps. I could hear him squealing but nobody could get to him because of the shooting. Mr. McGuigan said he was going to try to reach him because he didn’t want him to die alone. He took two steps forward and was then shot in the head.”

118.274 In her written statement to the Widgery Inquiry, Geraldine McBride gave this account:

“6. There were about half a dozen people beside the telephone box taking cover. A man took me from Mr Gilmore’s body along towards the box. At this time we could hear the cries of wounded at the other end of the shops (the centre block of Rossville flats). There was firing down Rossville Street and also between the two buildings from the waste ground in front of Chamberlain Street. This kept us pinned where we were.

7. A man was shouting out that he did not want to die. We wanted to go to him but could not because of the gunfire. Mr Barney McGuigan said ‘I’m not going to let him die by himself. If I take my white hankie they’ll not shoot me’. We tried to dissuade him but he took out his handkerchief and moved out from the wall a few paces waving it in front of him. We shouted to him to come back because the shooting did not stop. Then he was hit, just about 4 paces out from the wall. He fell and he was dead as he hit the ground. He was hit in the back of the head.”

Saville finds that all four of these casualties were shot without any possible justification by Lance Corporal F who had already killed Michael Kelly and possibly also Jim Wray and William McKinney. The killing of Barney McGuigan was witnessed by many people and gruesomely photographed by several. Saville’s reasoning in identifying Lance Corporal F as the killer is rather more circumstantial than in previous cases, but it is a good set of logical constructions (essentially, these shots were fired, we have no evidence of anyone else firing into this area, and making allowances for the other lies told by Lance Corporal F the use of ammunition seems to add up).

238 pages then cover two separate series of events back up in the Rossville Flats area. The 81 pages of Chapter 122 examine what happened to the bodies of Michael McDaid, John Young and William Nash, retrieved by military ambulance from the rubble barricade where they had been shot. It’s not clear why the army felt it had the responsibility to retrieve the bodies (since all other casualties were transported at least in the first place by civilian means), and I rather wish that Saville had gone into this in greater depth. Colonel Wilford’s infamous contemporary interview makes much of the Paras’ gallantry at recovering the bodies under fire, “not sure if they were dead or wounded”; but it is pretty clear that they behaved disrespectfully both to the corpses their colleagues had just shot and to civilians wanting to approach the bodies.

Another 81 pages, in Chapter 123, looks at other firing in the Rossville Flats area, and concludes that no less than five soldiers – Private C, Lance Corporal D, Private L, Private G and Lance Corporal F – all fired at a window because they had mistaken the camera of photographer Fulvio Grimaldi for a gun as he poked it out. Grimaldi’s girlfriend and colleague, Susan North, was in the flat with him at the time, and happened to have her tape recorder on to record the reactions of the people who lived there as the shots hit the window:

[Sound of gun shots]
[Sound of TV in background]
[Fulvio Grimaldi] Here
[Mrs McCrudden] That’s at you for taking the photos .. that’s at you taking the photos cunt that’s at your for taking the photos cunt
[Fulvio Grimaldi]  Yes I know I know
[Mrs McCrudden]  That’s at you for taking the photos that’s what that is .. that was at you
[Fulvio Grimaldi]  We won’t take any photos any more

Mrs McCrudden grasped instantly what was going on even though it took the British system another 38 years to get there. In the official text of the report, Saville politely redacts her characterisation of Grimaldi in the above exchange, but I have restored her own terminology from the original transcript. I am sorry that we know nothing more of her other than that she and Susan North were injured by shattering glass from the window as it was shot through, and the names of two of her children who gave evidence and two others who were in the flat at the time. She is last heard, very sensibly, taking the weans to hide in the bathroom until the shooting is over.

On this incident, Saville concludes:

123.275 …it is important to record that there are three significant reasons why we have considered at length the firing in Rossville Street at 12 Garvan Place in Block 1 of the Rossville Flats, despite the fact that this resulted only in minor injuries to two of the people in that flat.

123.276 The first is that this was firing by soldiers who mistakenly and unjustifiably engaged a target who was posing no threat of any kind to them or their colleagues.

123.277 The second is that Lance Corporal F gave a knowingly false account of where he had fired six (and orginally nine) of his shots, something that we have taken into account when considering what he did in Sector 5.

123.278 The third is that the firing at 12 Garvan Place demonstrates how Army fire can be (and was) mistaken by other soldiers for fire by paramilitaries.

It is a matter of appalling irony that as five soldiers were shooting up Mrs McCrudden’s flat, her TV was playing a recruitment ad for the the army.

The final 145 pages of Volume VII deal with one of the most baffling bits of the story. The body of Gerald Donaghey, shot dead rather casually by Lance Corporal F’s buddy Private G, was taken into custody by the police on the way to hospital. Four nail bombs were then found and defused, supposedly each in separate pockets of Donaghey’s clothing. None of the civilians who had attempted first aid on him as he was dying noticed that he had bulky explosives on him. Saville weighs the alternatives that i) the nail bombs were planted on Donaghey at some intermediate stage by the security forces and ii) those who were present as he died somehow failed to notice that he was carrying them. In the end the report finds the second alternative slightly the less improbable. Speaking only for myself, I would have put the balance of probabilities in a different place, and I wish that some of the alleged witnesses to the discovery of the nailbombs had been questioned a bit more closely.

Two more of these to go, folks; bear with me.

Volume I | Volume II | Volume III | Volume IV | Volume V | Volume VI | Volume VII | Volume VIII | Volume IX | Volume X and conclusions

Whoniversaries 27 July

Nothing particularly grabbed me for yesterday’s date.

i) births and deaths

27 July 1925: birth of Harry Towb, whose death last year, three days before his 84th birthday, I commemorated at the weekend.

ii) broadcast / performance anniversary

27 July 2008: broadcast (and performance) of Music of the Spheres in conjunction with Proms concert. I watched this the other week and it is pretty brilliant – wish I had been there for the real thing.

iii) date of real event, implicitly specified in canon

27 July 2012: scheduled launch of the Olympic Games, as seen in Fear Her (2006)

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I do not often think of myself as particularly short

A couple of telling photographs from the current trip. First, me and my colleague T with the Minister and his Undersecretary, who are both just under 2 metres tall:

And then, me with (left) the head of their Addis Ababa office and (right) two colleagues from their Kampala office.

Ador Akok Athuai, on the far right above, is 7’2″ (2.15m) tall, and I think is the tallest person I have ever met. He is related to the basketball player, Manute Bol, who died last month and was even taller.

I will never be able to pass myself off as a Southern Sudanese. At 5’10”, 1.79 m, I am simply too short. (Quite apart from other problems with such a project.)

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July Books 17) The Sun Also Rises, by Ernest Hemingway

I had almost no expectations or knowledge of this book before I opened it; my only other Hemingway, read and much enjoyed a year ago, was The Old Man and the Sea so I was mildly braced for more tales of Atlantic fishery, rather than for the intense story of disillusioned young things in Paris in the mid-1920s, drinking too much, shagging each other, and heading off to Spain for the bullfights. I must say I loved it; though the book starts off by telling us about Robert Cohn, in fact it is much more about the narrator, Jake Barnes, and his discreetly undescribed war wound; and a quest for courage and death by him and Brett, his and Cohn’s mutual love interest. Hemingway’s staccato writing style is enviably clear and crisp, telling us much more with some of the individual punctuation marks than you sometimes get with entire paragraphs. On the basis of this and The Old Man and the Sea I shall try and expand my Hemingway collection fairly rapidly.

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July Books 16) Faust, by Goethe

It really took me ages to grind through this, and I’m not sure that it was worth it. Rather ambitiously I got hold of the Wordsworth edition which includes not only Part I and Part II of Faust, but also an earlier draft of Part I (the Urfaust) just in case you are sufficiently interested to know what the original version might have looked like.

Part I is the more digestible version (and the Urfaust even more so). Heinrich Faust, a scholar who is trying to reconcile the life of the mind with the lusts of the flesh, signs a deal with Mephistopheles (who9 first appears, and I am not making this up, in the shape of a poodle) to get whatever he wants, notably the pretty girl Gretchen. There are various rustic and studenty comic interludes, but it all goes wrong and she is executed for infanticide (I think; it’s a bit obscure).

Part II, in five tedious acts, is more a pageant of Goethe’s knowledge (and adaptation) of German and classical mythology than anything resembling an actual plot. Faust sets up a kingdom which seems to be co-located between medieval Germany and ancient Greece in order to seduce Helen of Troy (after the end of the Trojan war). There are complicated bits with emperors battling each other (one of whom may be Napoleon, who was around at the time of composition) and I really didn’t follow much of it.

I think that either part would be pretty much impossible to stage. The characters do very little but wander up and down declaiming verse, and some of the directions are surely unimplementable (the well-trained poodle, as noted above; various stunts required in Part II). I assume that Goethe wrote it for intellectual house parties to recite to each other while lounging around the formal gardens sipping white wine.

Despite the fact that I really didn’t enjoy Faust much, I did have some fun spotting themes that have carried through to later literature. Quite a lot of Part I reminded me of Buffy, with the students, young lurve, supernatural powers and diabolical figures tempting our lead character. That may be my imagination; I’m quite sure, however, that Roger Zelazny drew on Faust’s construction of his magical castle to seduce Helen when writing the latter part of Jack of Shadows – he was a fan of German literature.

I suppose I should read (or, better, somehow watch) the Marlowe version to get another perspective on the story. (And then reread Michael Swanwick’s take on it.)

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Whoniversaries 25 July

broadcast anniversaries

25 July 1964: broadcast of ‘Kidnap’, the fifth episode of the story we now call The Sensorites. The Doctor, Ian and Susan start to get to the bottom of the mysterious poisonings, but the internal political machinations of the Sensorites are reaching a conclusion as well…

25 July 1985: broadcast of first and second episodes of Slipback on radio. The Doctor has a hangover and Eric Saward thinks he is Douglas Adams. Episode two ends with Peri falling down a ventilation shaft, poor girl.

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Whoniversaries 24 July

i) births and deaths

24 July 2009: death of Harry Towb, a few days before his 84th birthday. He played Osgood, the lunar controller in episode 1 of The Seeds of Death (Second Doctor, 1969) and McDermott, the old-school plastics factory man in episode 2 of Terror of the Autons (Third Doctor, 1971). Both get killed off early on. Here's a small tribute:

The Seeds of Death
Osgood bids his farewell as he heads up to the moon…
…disappearing in the T-Mat booth…
…to find that his management problems…
…have been made worse by…
…the unseen intruders…
…(actually the Ice Warriors)…
…who shoot him. And he dies.
Terror of the Autons
McDermott is puzzled by the plastics factory…
…and the new advisor with the natty beard…
…who wants to show him a new invention…
…the chair you can just sink into…
…this is the forerunner of the bin that eats Mickey in Rose
…and so McDermott dies.

Towb also returned rather bizarrely to play the Brigadier's aged Italian Uncle in The Ghosts of N-Space, Jon Pertwee's last outing as the Doctor, a 1996 audio. There are no pictures from The Ghosts of N-Space, but perhaps that is just as well.

ii) broadcast anniversaries

24 July 1965 – broadcast of 'Checkmate', the fourth and last episode of the story we now call The Time Meddler, ending the original second season. The Monk reveals his plans to equip Harold Godwinsson's army with atomic bazookas to change history. The Doctor outwits him and sabotages his Tardis. Closing titles play over arty shots of the Doctor, Steven and Vicki against a starry background.

iii) date specified in Who literature

24 July 1989: the Sixth Doctor meets Mel Bush for the first time, in Gary Russell's 1997 novel Business Unusual (which I haven't read myself).

On 24 July 6012, the Tenth Doctor, Martha Jones and Donna Noble arrived on Messaline, the TARDIS having brought them there against their will. Upon their arrival, the Doctor “gave birth” to Jenny, a generated anomaly grown from a sample of his DNA. With the Doctor’s new “daughter”, the TARDIS crew together ended the Human-Hath War, which had started only seven days earlier. Jenny was shot by General Cobb, but was revived by energy from “the Source” after the Doctor and his companions left, escaping in a rocket to lead a new life. (TV: The Doctor’s Daughter)

In 1764, a road works overseer asked the First Doctor for his papers on the Time Lord’s way to Paris. When he had none to present, he was forced into slave labour. Meanwhile, his companions — Susan Foreman, Barbara Wright and Ian Chesterton — were to be guillotined the following day. They were placed in cells at the Conciergerie, but all three had an idea of how to escape. Barbara and Susan abandoned their plan of digging their way out when the hole caused their cell to be infested with rats. The Doctor, however, did manage to get out of his predicament by distracting and knocking out the road works overseer. Ian too managed to get saved — he was crossed off the execution list when his captors thought he knew something of value. (TV: “Guests of Madame Guillotine”)

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July Books 15) The Bloody Sunday Report, Volume VI

At 625 numbered pages, this is another very long volume of the Bloody Sunday report – not really because of the number of casualties (eight, compared to seven from each of the previous two volumes) let alone the number of soldiers involved (only four, compared to six in Volume V and eight in Volumes III and IV) but because the evidence of the perpetrators and survivors is unusually confusing. Of the four soldiers (Corporal E, Lance Corporal F, Private G and Private H), two are now dead, and all four appear to have attempted to coordinate their stories rather more than was the case for other parts of the chaos of Bloody Sunday. The civilian witnesses, on the other hand were almost all very busy running away, and therefore had no real incentive to look behind them to watch which soldier was shooting which of their fellow citizens.

Saville faithfully recapitulates all the evidence available, again ruthlessly dissecting the lies told by the soldiers, who moved into Glenfada Park North contrary to instructions (their commanding officer, Lieutenant 112, claimed that they were under his orders, but Savile does not believe him either) and basically started taking pot-shots at the crowd. Corporal E fired southwards and injured Patrick O’Donnell who was trying to take cover behind a fence; Lance Corporal F, Private G and Private H fired south-west, and between them killed Jim Wray and William McKinney, and also injured Joe Mahon, Joe Friel and Michael Quinn. Jim Wray was then shot again as he lay dying. Private G then fired into the neighbouring Abbey Park at Gerard McKinney and killed him, the bullet passing through him and then also killing Gerald Donaghey. Most of the casualties were shot from behind as they fled.

There is a mass of awful detail here. No less than 72 pages address the question of whether or not Jim Wray was shot for a second time after he had fallen to the ground, already having been shot once, with some particularly contested pieces of forensic evidence (I think I would have preferred not to know what ‘shoring’ means in this context) and a wealth of confused and confusing memories of civilians. Another 17 pages look at an incident where an 18-year-old nurse, Eibhlin Rafferty, believed that she was shot at by the soldiers as she attempted to go to the casualties to treat them. Saville respectfully disagrees with her, for various reasons emerging from the balance of the evidence of other witnesses (thus disagreeing with the journalist Nell McCafferty, who was also present). Saville is too polite to say it, perhaps, but to me the biggest strike against her story is that she is still alive; if the soldiers really had targeted her they would certainly have killed her.

For once the evidence about paramilitary activity here at the time that the soldiers were firing is pretty unambiguous: there wasn’t any. The soldiers’ lawyers attempted to argue that Glenfada Park North was known as a hotbed of paramilitary activity, but failed to prove that the four soldiers would have known that, or that it makes any difference if they did. The Official IRA men from Volumes II and IV, by their own account, and presumably also the unidentified gunman from Volume V, since there was no other route he could have taken, had made their getaway through Glenfada Park North and Abbey Park a few minutes or possibly even seconds before the soldiers arrived, but the soldiers did not see them, being too busy shooting at non-existent nail-bombers and petrol-bombers and mysteriously hitting civilians. One choice bit of Saville deconstruction:

[100.5] Corporal E’s evidence would require us to accept that a man, in full view of four armed soldiers, one of whom was only some 30 yards away, threw a petrol bomb towards them which exploded and then, apparently without seeking cover, lit and threw a nail bomb. It strikes us as being beyond belief that anyone would be so foolish as to act in this way.

The lawyers representing the soldiers, here as elsewhere, tried to argue that there were other unreported casualties who were the real and legitimate targets and who have been protected over the subsequent decades by a mass conspiracy of silence; or alternatively that the soldiers, firing at legitimate targets, happened to miss them and hit nearby civilians instead. The biggest problem with the former story is that it is obviously nonsense. The biggest problem with the latter story is that the soldiers themselves, here as elsewhere, have consistently claimed not only that they fired at legitimate targets but that they hit them as well. Gerald Donaghey turned out to have been a member of the Fianna, the youth branch of the IRA, and nail bombs were found on his body later on, but since Private G could not have known that at the time and in any case was aiming at Gerard McKinney when he fired the shot that killed both McKinney and Donaghey, it hardly matters.

About two dozen people were then arrested and carted off by the soldiers. They included at least one genuine member of the Provisional IRA and two priests, arrested as they tried to reach the casualties.

113.73 There is no doubt that, as Fr O’Keeffe stated in this letter to General Tuzo, he and Fr Bradley were refused permission from soldiers to go to those who were lying shot in Glenfada Park North and that that refusal was given in unnecessarily abusive terms. Leaving aside the way it was given, it is perhaps understandable that Fr O’Keeffe should not have been allowed to go to the bodies, as he was in plain clothes, but in our view the refusal to allow Fr Bradley (in clerical clothes) to do so cannot be defended. There were a number of soldiers around, so if it was thought, for example, that he might be intent on escaping (or even removing weapons from the bodies), it would have been easy to guard against such possibilities.

Patrick O’Donnell, unable to move quickly enough for the soldiers arresting him because they had already shot him in the shoulder, was bashed over the head with a baton causing a wound that needed seven or eight stitches.

Despite the confusion of the evidence, the picture of what happened in Glenfada Park North and Abbey Park is depressingly clear. This was not a case of soldiers over-reacting to having stones and other objects thrown at them; this was four Paras taking it upon themselves to pursue fleeing civilians and shoot them dead as they ran away.

Only three more volumes to go. (Volume X, as mentioned before, is a set of legal appendices to the main narrative.)

Volume I | Volume II | Volume III | Volume IV | Volume V | Volume VI | Volume VII | Volume VIII | Volume IX | Volume X and conclusions

July Books 14) The Stuff of Thought: Language as a Window into Human Nature, by Steven Pinker

I was rather unimpressed by the Pinker book I read last year, but this seemed to be a more coherent assembly of facts and theories relating to linguistics, psychology and philosophy. I’m afraid I still wasn’t gripped by it, but that is more to do with my own preferences for intellectual exercise than any fault of the book; I can’t get very excited by deep philosophical questions, and psychology has never been an attractive field for me.

There were some points of interest.

  • I was startled to read of an old family friend making her reputation by observing and writing up the process by which her daughters learned to speak, and indeed nervously wondered if I too had been an unwitting subject of her research. But on reflection, by the time we knew the family her daughters were well past the stage of language acquisition (in English anyway, though for all I know she may have also exploited the linguistic consequences of their subsequent emigration to the Netherlands).
  • Good quote on linguistic determinism: “The idea that Eskimos pay more attention to varieties of snow because they have more words for it is so topsy-turvy (can you think of any other reason why Eskimos might pay attention to snow?) that it’s hard to believe it would be taken seriously were it not for the feeling of cleverness it affords at having transcended common sense.”
  • A joke about Eastern European aristocrats having a drinking contest where the winner is the one who can think of the biggest number. After long thought the first one says, “Three.” The second one ponders long and hard, and finally says, “You win.”
  • But the reason that peoples who count ‘one, two, many’ don’t have larger numbers is that thye don’t really need them; Pinker quotes a researcher who finds that the Yanomanö warrior knows each of his arrows individually and so does not count them.
  • Rude words for sex are transitive (take a direct object); polite words for sex are intransitive (require a preposition) – “John bonked Mary”; “John made love to Mary”. I wonder how true this is in languages other than English.
  • Politeness strategies in many languages use similar strategies to make direct questions more acceptable – he gives an example from Tzeltal, “You wouldn’t perhaps sell your chicken, it was said” – similar in concept to English “You wouldn’t be selling your chicken by any chance, would you?”

That last point was rather unusual in that Pinker for once drew from languages other than English for his conclusions, and I would have enjoyed the book more if he had done so more often. I’m glad to have read a better book by him than How The Mind Works, but I won’t go out of my way to track his stuff down in future.

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ICJ rules on Kosovo

Still trying to get details but it seems that the International Court of Justice has, very sensibly, ruled that Kosovo’s declaration of independence in February 2008 did not violate either general international law, or, more specifically, UN Security Council Resolution 1244. (The court’s own website is down, but I’ve been folowing through Twitter where the updates are usually ahead of the news websites.)

I’m glad and surprised. I had expected a much less clear-cut ruling, the court possibly even refusing to give a judgement (and probably doing so at great length), in order to play it safe. And of course just havinog an ICJ advisory ruling in your back pocket may not actually help – Morocco is still in the Western Sahara, the wall still snakes across the West Bank. But it certainly does no harm.

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Doctor Who Rewatch: 10

As with most of the stories of this run, I found myself enjoying The Mind of Evil more this time than previously. Already, the Doctor / UNIT / Jo ensemble feels comfortable and reassuring. It is quite amazing how much Manning’s performance pretty much sets the agenda for all subsequent female companions. I will write more on this when I get to The Green Death in a couple of months, but it’s striking how routine she has made it become even in her second story (indeed, even in her first). Also it’s nice to get the impression that UNIT does more than sitting around waiting for the Doctor to shout at them.

The Mind of Evil has a lot of similarities with The Ambassadors of Death, except that it is better. The Master’s means and motivation are no more convincing than General Carrington’s, but Delgado pulls it off far better than Abineri (and of course we also get shown his motivation very explicitly). One could wish for a slightly more evil-looking mind parasite, but apart from that the special effects are pretty good, and the monsters returning from the black and white era in the Doctor’s nightmares are practically the first indication in the colour era (bar Tardis, Benton and Brigadier) that this is the same show that Troughton and Hartnell used to be in.

Also Pik-Sen Lim, cast in a story written by her husband, gets the first speaking role for a woman of colour since Carmen Munro played Fariah in The Enemy of the World, and while it’s not exactly a strong and empowered role she is very watchable in it.

The Claws of Axos has a number of interesting ideas, which aren’t quite delivered as well as they might have been. The portrait of civil-military relations, with the civilians definitely the bad guys, is quite fascinating. Peter Bathurst, last seen trying to run the Vulcan colony in The Power of the Daleks, is selfish civil servant Chinn, bullied mercilessly by his minister but in turn bullying UNIT while trying to cut a deal with the Axons (and then being caught out deceiving the Axons about the global distribution of Axonite). The best bit, though, is Roger Delgado’s Master, outfoxed for once by Axos, forced by circumstance to collaborate with te Brigadier, and at the end of episode 3 rather regretfully wiping out the Doctor and Jo in order to save the world.

It doesn’t quite amount to the sum of its parts, though it is still better than I remembered. The worst bit is the leaden performance of Paul Grist as US agent Bill Filer, though some responsibility rests with the writers for not deciding whether he was a love interest for Jo, or explaining why he is a civilian in an otherwise military team. The second worst bit is of course comic yokel Pigbin Josh. The other apparent reversal, the Doctor pretending to ally with the Master to flee and let the Earth die, is not as convincing; somehow the Doctor’s desire to escape his exile is a comic character flaw rather than a driving obsession (as it would have been in, say, Christopher Ecclestone’s hands).

Note that, as in Inferno, nuclear power is much better for you than any other kind of electricity.

Gosh, with Colony in Space we’re back to the old days: the Tardis goes to another planet for the first time since The War Games, ending the run of seven consecutive Earth-bound stories. When was the last time we had robots? Autons and Krotons don’t really count, so it’s either the White Robots of the Land of fiction, or the Quarks. When was the last time we had aliens in rubber suits which are not invading Earth? The Silurians, I suppose, on the technicality that Earth is their own planet and humanity the invaders. Apart from that – the Krotons and Dominators aren’t in rubber suits – it’s quite a long way back; probably the Cybermen on Telos, if it is their planet; the Macra aren’t in rubber suits, and before them it’s the Monoids. And because it’s Malcolm Hulke, there have to be giant reptiles, even if they are imaginary (though the Primitives do also look a bit reptilian).

This being Malcolm Hulke, it is a somewhat political story, but the message seems somewhat dodgy. The evil capitalist exploiters are of course evil, but the local indigenous inhabitants are denied agency and conveniently destroy their only source of power, leaving the virtuous peace-loving colonists to inherit the planet. In the context of what was actually happening in Africa at the time, this is unbelievably crass.

However, it is mostly well done the story is better structured to watching an episode at a time rather than in one swell foop. John Ringham is particularly good as Ashe, and it’s good to remind viewers about the Time Lords, and that the Tardis actually goes places.

The Dæmons is surely the greatest of the UNIT stories, and one of the most English stories of this very English show. Evil morris dancers! A white witch! The Master is your local vicar! The first time I watched this I didn’t like it much, but taken in context, and an episode at a time, I can see why this Barry Letts script is seen as a high point of the Barry Letts years; it is the first time, apart from The War Games, that we have had a season finale as such, pulling all the characters together and ending with the Master’s disgrace and capture.

The Brigadier is off the main field of action for most of the story, which actually gives him a chance to shine on his own rather than be snarled at by Pertwee, and generates a nice the-boss-is-away dynamic among the other UNIT folks, augmented by Delgado on top form and by Damaris Hayman’s wonderfully batty performance as Miss Hawthorne (who we assume had a jolly good fertility dance with Benton throughout the following night). Apart from Richard Franklin, who is clearly the weakest of the regulars, everyone is excellent. (I enjoyed also watching the Return to Devil’s End documentary, bringing Pertwee, Courtney, Franklin and Levene back to the village along with director Christopher Barry.)

I commented back in The Abominable Snowmen that Who has four ways of treating religion: squabbling sectarians, deluded cultists, religious buildings used for nefarious purposes, or true believers. The Dæmons includes both the second and third categories. As far as I remember it is also the first time religion has been portrayed on the show since The Abominable Snowmen, and the only time apart from Steven’s profession of faith (or at least denomination) in The Massacre and the unecclesiastical antics of The Smugglers that we have had anything explicit about the Church of England. More on this in the story after next.

Day of the Daleks brings back the malignant pepperpots for the first time since Season Four (we’re now on Season Nine). Again, though last time I watched it I wasn’t all that impressed, particularly in contrast to Terrance Dicks’ novelisation which is probably the best of his many Who books, watched one episode at a time and in context it is actually a very clever story. The plot reflects a couple of utterly outdated elements of the Zeitgeist; this was a time when international peace was still a matter of staving off thermonuclear war by holding grand summits among the elite, one the one hand, and when terrorists tended to be earnest lefties in combat uniform whose methods were wrong bt whose ideals were comprehensible, on the other. The future Dalek-controlled Earth is more overtly fascist than that in The Dalek Invasion of Earth, but not quite as obviously so as the Skaro of Genesis of the Daleks, but in contrast to those stories it’s not really the point, which is a plot of time paradoxes.

The flashback sequence at the end of episode three is the first time we have seen the previous Doctors visually referenced since they left (apart from the still picture of Hartnell seen in Troughton’s first episode). It’s interesting that after a first colour season which might as well have been a completely different show, with only the Brigadier and the dismembered Tardis, followed by a season which had an unprecedented level of internal continuity, we’re now starting a run of three consecutive stories which do look back to the earlier history of Doctor Who, as if Letts now feels comfortable enough to acknowledge the origins. Fans of New Who will recall that it also seemed to take RTD a while to get comfortable with the programme’s past.

It’s not actually been so very long since I watched The Curse of Peladon, which is and remains one of my favourite Pertwee stories, so not all that much to say about it; viewed in context, it is notable for Jo’s first real love interest, and the first serious love interest for a companion since Jamie’s snog with Samantha in The Faceless Ones. (Apart from Zoe and Isobel in The Invasion, of course.) It makes Filer in The Claws of Axos look even worse than he did at the time.

Is Hepesh a deluded cultist, a true believer, or someone using religious instituions for nefarious purposes? Discuss.

In general, I am enjoying these stories a lot more than I thought I would. When I first rewatched the Third Doctor era I found myself irritated by the grouchy Pertwee characterisation, the tedious fights, the overstretched plots and Jo’s cutesy blondeness. But in fact Pertwee rather grows on one given a chance, the fights are of course there to remind us that the show is better than The Avengers, the stories taken episode by episode work better (and in any case are not as excessive as the seven, eight, ten and twelve-parters of previous eras), and Jo is recognisable with hindsight as setting the pattern for almost all subsequent companions. Also my ten-year-old (who turns eleven on Sunday) tells me that he rather likes Jo, and I think I can see why – small and childlike, she is essentially the viewpoint character for the younger members of the audience.

I am now 38% through the Old Who stories, 44% by screen minutes and episodes, and 32% of the time from November 1963 to December 1989 has elapsed.

< An Unearthly Child – The Aztecs | The Sensorites – The Romans | The Web Planet – Galaxy 4 | Mission To The Unknown – The Gunfighters | The Savages – The Highlanders | The Underwater Menace – Tomb of the Cybermen | The Abominable Snowmen – The Wheel In Space | The Dominators – The Space Pirates | The War Games – Terror of the Autons | The Mind of Evil – The Curse of Peladon | The Sea Devils – Frontier in Space | Planet of the Daleks – The Monster of Peladon | Planet of the Spiders – Revenge of the Cybermen | Terror of the Zygons – The Seeds of Doom | The Masque of Mandragora – The Talons of Weng-Chiang | Horror of Fang Rock – The Invasion of Time | The Ribos Operation – The Armageddon Factor | Destiny of the Daleks – Shada | The Leisure Hive – The Keeper of Traken | Logopolis – The Visitation | Black Orchid – Mawdryn Undead | Terminus – The Awakening | Frontios – Attack of the Cybermen | Vengeance on Varos – In A Fix With Sontarans | The Mysterious Planet – Paradise Towers | Delta and the Bannermen – The Greatest Show in the Galaxy | Battlefield – The TV Movie >

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Whoniversaries 22 July

22 July 1937: birth of Adrienne Hill, who played the short-lived Katarina, a companion of the First Doctor, in the last episode of The Myth Makers and the first few episodes of The Daleks’ Master Plan in 1965.

22 July 1964: birth of Bonnie Langford, who played Melanie Bush in 1986-87 alongside the Sixth and Seventh Doctors.

They are not the only two Doctor Who regulars to share the same birthday – more on that come October.

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Whoniversary 21 July

Posting late because I have been on the road.

21 July 1994: publication of the first of the Virgin Missing Adventures, Paul Cornell’s tale of the Fifth Doctor and vampires, Goth Opera. I won’t normally track publication dates here but this is a significant event in the development of Who books, the first spinoff book featuring a non-current Doctor. (And also nothing else really caught my eye for today’s date.)

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Situation Vacant

Yet another new series starting from Big Finish, this time with Paul McGann’s Eighth Doctor auditioning four potential new companions in a set-up intended more for comedy than common sense. Not all of the potential companions are exactly who or what they say they are; I thought the show was stolen by Joanna Kanska as the manager at the hotel where it all took place, rather than by any of the formal contestants. Lots of stuff happening but it didn’t quite hang together for me.

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July Books 13) Oliver Twist, by Charles Dickens

One of several classic Dickens books which I had not previously read, and which eventually worked to the top of my list. I am sure that it was spell-binding social commentary in 1838, but the character of Oliver seemed to me much too good to be true. Any child coming from that sort of brutal institutionalised background would have pretty serious psychological issues; in fact all Oliver need is a comfortable bed and a cuddle and he turns into an angel. The implication is that Oliver, as a Good Boy, is therefore part of the deserving poor, and the Artful Dodger and so on, as Bad Boys, are part of the undeserving poor, a distinction I find rather invidious – copper-fastened at the end by the fact that Oliver does inherit wealth, but on condition of his goodness rather than his absolute rights as his parents’ son. There seems little room for redemption, and Nancy, the fallen woman who tries to redeem herself, gets killed off. The portrayal of Fagin must surely have appeared gratuitously anti-Semitic even by 1838 standards. I’m glad that I have read and enjoyed later Dickens, because I think if I had started here I would have written him off.

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I’ve been PNG’ed

For the first time in my life I’ve been refused entry to a country on, as far as I can tell, purely political grounds. Preparing for my fourth trip in eight months to Sudan, I applied as usual for a visa at the Sudanese Embassy here in Brussels. Immediately the vibes were a lot less positive than previously – not unexpected since the ambassador and consul have both recently been replaced, and their president has just been indicted for genocide so they are not in a mood to be nice to foreigners. Given that I am leaving for a nine day trip this evening, I was more than a little concerned as to what to do.

But it is (probably) all right in the end. The autonomous government of Southern Sudan issues its own ‘travel permits’ which gain you access to its territory (though not to the northern part of the country) and since that is where I am going, I should, in šāʾ Allāh, be able to collect such a travel permit from the Southern Sudan office in Kampala tomorrow morning in the brief window between my flights landing from Istanbul and taking off for Juba at Entebbe. (Fans of Evelyn Waugh will remember a very similar dilemma for William Boot in Scoop.) Wish me luck.

(Explanation of the title of this post – ‘PNG’ = persona non grata. Another distinction for my CV.)

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Whoniversaries 20 July

I didn’t forget about this yesterday, just didn’t spot any 19 July anniversaries that appealed.

i) births and deaths

20 July 1923: birth of James Bree, who played the Security Chief in The War Games (1969), Nefred the Decider in Full Circle (1980) and the Keeper of the Matrix in The Ultimate Foe (1986)

ii) broadcast anniversaries – none

iii) dates specified in canon

20 July 1966: the day that the First Doctor leaves London with Ben and Polly in The War Machines (1966) and the Second Doctor brings them back in The Faceless Ones (1967), only to find that he and Jamie need to find the stolen Tardis in Evil of the Daleks (also 1967).

20 July 1969: Neil Armstrong walks on the moon (21 July European time), an event Martha Jones says she saw four times in Blink (2007).

20 July 2006: forty years on from her depature and return, Polly Wright emails Sir Alastair Lethbridge-Stewart as a result of reading an article about Jo Jones (née Grant) in the first installment of The Three Companions audioplay (released in 12 monthly episodes 2009-10).

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